Gangguan Harmoni dan Keseimbangan

Gangguan stabilitas dan gangguan harmoni keseimbangan dinamika organismik, senantiasa merupakan pacu yang kuat untuk berusaha mengembalikan stabilitas dan harmoni itu, baik dalam arti kata bio dinamika maupun psiko dinamika.
If we apply our scholarly apparatus to the current language of psychiatry we are supposed to be doing philosophy of psychiatry; if we apply to the past languages of psychiatry, we are supposed to be doing its history. I suppose, since psychiatry and her concepts and languages is inter alia a culture bound and language bound discipline then it is not possible to understand what we are saying unless we know of when, how and who took the decisions that nowadays we take to be truths!! seterusnya di
https://dryuliskandar.wordpress.com/2009/10/14/psikiatri-kusumanto-yul-iskandar-39/

Empat Dasa Warsa Pendekatan Eklektik-Holistik di bidang Kedokteran Jiwa (Psikiatri) (1966-2006), dan Terapi Gangguan Skizofrenia.

R. Kusumanto Setyonegoro.,MD.,SpKJ., PhD
Guru besar (emeritus) psikiatri FKUI, Jkt
mantan Direktur Kesehatan Jiwa, Depkes RI
dan
Yul Iskandar,MD., SpKJ., PhD
Direktur Institute for Cognitive Research.

Catatan.
Tulisan adalah diambil dari Disertasi Kusumanto Setyonegoro (1966), dan pendapat Yul Iskandar terhadap tesis itu, naskah ini telah dipersiapkan selama lebih kurang 10 tahun, dan baru bisa selesai tahun 2006. Naskah ini sedianya akan diterbitkan menjadi buku atas persetujuan Prof. Kusumanto pada tahun 2006, dengan judul diatas. Abstrak tulisan ini pernah dibacakan dalam kongress Indonesian Society for Psychopharmacology, Biological Psychiatry and Sleep Medicines. Tulisan ini untuk sementara diterbitkan dalam bentuk seperti ini. Tulisan ini bisa diperbanyak tanpa izin asal menyebut sumbernya.

Lain halnya jika kita hendak meninjaunya dari sudut filsafat kedokteran (medical philosophy). Ditilik secara demikian itu maka dengan adanya penegasan bahwa proses keadaan sakit merupakan suatu proses hidup khusus yang normal, maka keadaan sakit itu tidak dapat dilepaskan dari pada manusia yang menderita.

Gangguan stabilitas dan gangguan harmoni keseimbangan dinamika organismik, senantiasa merupakan pacu yang kuat untuk berusaha mengembalikan stabilitas dan harmoni itu, baik dalam arti kata bio dinamika maupun psiko dinamika. Yang terakhir ini juga dapat kita formulasikan, bahwa tiap-tiap organisme itu senantiasa akan berikhtiar untuk mempertahannkan integrasi holistiknya, kestabilan harmoniknya, dan corak-corak individualnya, karena hanya dalam keadaan yang demikian itu, organisme dapat memperoleh kemungkinan untuk berfungsi secara optimal.

Manusia adalah suatu kesatuan holistic, dan suatu kesatuan harmonik, serta suatu kesatuan individual semacam itu, secara bersama-sama. Istilah “individu” memang selalu meyarankan ke arah hal-hal yang tercakup oleh konsep holismus dan harmoni, serta juga sifat-sifat yang tersendiri.

Ditinjau secara organobiologi, maka istilah ini dapat dianggap merupakan suatu kesatuan yang fungsional fisiologik; secara psikodinamika istilah ini berarti adanya suatu kesatuan fungsional yang berkepribadian suatu existensi individual yang khusus yang mengandung corak-coraknya yang tersendiri, walaupun berada dalam suatu lingkungan normative yang banyak sedikit cenderung meletakkan standard-standard yang bersifat ukuran.
Kusumanto Setyonegoro , Disertasi 1966

Interviewing a Colleague: Prof. Germán E. Berrios*
On psychopathology, nosology and neurobiology.
*Prof. G.E. Berrios
BA (Oxford); DPhilSci (Oxford); MD; Dr. Med. honoris causa [Heidelberg; San Marcos]; FRCPsych; FBPsS; FMedSci
Consultant Neuropsychiatrist, Head, Neuropsychiatry Services.
Reader in the Epistemology of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge.
Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge. United Kingdom
This section is aimed at discussing controversial and up-to- date topics in biological psychiatry or related disciplines by means of a short interview with an expert. Personalities of Psychiatry and related fields will share their opinions, concepts and critical points of view about our subject of interest: The Human Brain and the Human Mind. (6)
JOD
How can epistemology and philosophy contribute to neurobiological research and to the psychiatry?
GEB
This is not a simple question to answer. I suppose it all depends of what philosophy we are talking about. I believe that the epistemology of psychiatry includes both its history and philosophy for there is little difference between them. If we apply our scholarly apparatus to the current language of psychiatry we are supposed to be doing philosophy of psychiatry; if we apply to the past languages of psychiatry, we are supposed to be doing its history. I suppose, since psychiatry and her concepts and languages is inter alia a culture bound and language bound discipline then it is not possible to understand what we are saying unless we know of when, how and who took the decisions that nowadays we take to be truths!!
Therefore, I believe that to do history of psychiatry is not like doing a bit of genetics or neuropathology or electroencephalography; it is far more than that. It is to acquire the conceptual tools which are essential to our discipline. I am writing a book on the philosophy of psychiatry at the moment and in September 2004 I shall return to Heidelberg University to give a plenary lecture on my views on the philosophy of psychiatry. You may want to wait until then!
JOD
…And the phenomenology and the history of psychiatry?
GEB
I have over the years tried to distinguish between the various forms of phenomenology that have come into contact with psychiatry in order to determine which of these schools has been of real use to our subject. It is rather facile to talk about the ‘phenomenological’ approach, about ‘epoje’, and descriptions without theory and all that. None of these stereotyped accounts of phenomenology offers any help to psychiatry. Jaspers was useful to our subject not because he was a ‘phenomenologist’ but because he was a brilliant man who organize the categories of psychiatry from a Kantian perspective. From the clinical view point, however, far more important to our subject may turn out to be Binswanger, May, Strauss, and certainly Merleau-Ponty. His extraordinary work on the phenomenology of the body has not yet been incorporated in psychiatry but it should.

JOD
A final unavoidable question: You come from Peru. After all these years in Cambridge, how do you see psychiatric practice and research in developing countries? Any advice?
GEB
It would be disrespectful of me to pontificate on what Latin-American psychiatry should be doing. Latino American reality is so different from that in Western Europe that only those who live and work in Latino America have the right to speak. Avatars of life transplanted me to England early in life and threw me into a culture which to this day remain opaque to me. I doubt whether I shall ever be able to break its code. On the other hand, I left my country a trifle too early to have learned all its social representations. Living in the interstice between two cultures is the fate of the émigré. This has some advantages and severe disadvantages. But this is another story.
I do return to my country at regular intervals and I have tried ‘to help’ its psychiatry many times. My fellow country men have always listened politely and I am grateful to them for that. Whether what I say has the least relevance to their problems is a different matter. If what I have said above is true, namely, that the expression of psychiatric disease is essentially bound to culture and language, then, I suspect that I have been telling my Peruvian colleagues a nonsense of my very own.
Globalism, the internet, the spread of the view that mental illness is just a disease of the brain and that hence it should respond everywhere to the same treatment, have created an illusion of universalism, particularly amongst the middle and professional classes who have more access to world media. In our countries, social groups who cannot afford such access have so far been protected from that illusion. They do not share the same social representations of the professionals who want to help them and hence these groups are becoming psychiatrically disenfranchised. Someone, somewhere, will have to learn their psychopathological language and offer the help they need.
(Yul Iskandar, dikutip dariThe worl Jounal of Biological Psychiatry, 2006)

Demikianlah sifatnya tingkat-tingkat atau fase-fase dalam memahami individu sebagai suatu kesatuan holistic, atau “Ganzheit”. Dan, oleh sebab itu pula, maka keadaan sakit selalu menyarankan tentang adanya suatu “Ganzheit” dari pada manusia. Dan demikian pula maka ilmu kedokteran jiwa modern pun secara konsekwen berpendirian senada dan sejiwa dengan asas-asas fundamental itu, dan patut disebutkan sebagai menjunjung tinggi dan memeprtahankan asas-asas “Ganzheit medizin”.
Kusumanto Setyonegoro , Disertasi 1966

Satu Tanggapan to “Gangguan Harmoni dan Keseimbangan”

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